Ohio Suffers Under Hillary Clinton Trade Policies As She Rakes In Special Interest Cash

WITHOUT AN AGREEMENT EVEN SIGNED, THE EXISTING TRADE DEFICIT WITH TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP PARTICIPANT NATIONS HAS ALREADY COST OHIO 112,500 JOBS

Clinton Owns The Trans-Pacific Partnership

As Secretary Of State, Clinton Took “A Leading Part In Drafting The Trans-Pacific Partnership.” “ She’s pressed the case for U.S. business in Cambodia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia, and other countries in China’s shadow. She’s also taken a leading part in drafting the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a free trade pact that would give U.S. companies a leg up on their Chinese competitors.” (Elizabeth Dwoskin and Indira Laksmanan, “How Hillary Clinton Created A U.S. Business-Promotion Machine,”Bloomberg,1/10/13)

  • Clinton Had Said The Trans-Pacific Partnership “Sets The Gold Standard In Trade Agreements.” CLINTON: “[We] need to keep upping our game both bilaterally and with partners across the region through agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership or TPP. Australia is a critical partner. This TPP sets the gold standard in trade agreements to open free, transparent, fair trade, the kind of environment that has the rule of law and a level playing field. And when negotiated, this agreement will cover 40 percent of the world’s total trade and build in strong protections for workers and the environment.” (Hillary Clinton, Remarks at Techport Australia , 11/15/12)

The U.S. Trade Deficit With TPP Countries Cost Ohio 112,500 Jobs, Or 2.16 Percent Of Its Entire Workforce, In 2015

The EPI Estimates That 112,500 Jobs In Ohio Were Displaced Due To Trade With TPP Countries In 2015. (Robert E. Scott And Elizabeth Glass, “Trans-Pacific Partnership, Currency Manipulation, Trade, And Jobs,” Economic Policy Institute, 3/3/16)

The EPI Estimates That 2.16 Percent Of Jobs In Ohio Were Displaced Due To Trade With TPP Countries In 2015. (Robert E. Scott And Elizabeth Glass, “Trans-Pacific Partnership, Currency Manipulation, Trade, And Jobs,” Economic Policy Institute, 3/3/16)

OHIOAN’S SOUNDLY REJECT THE TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP

Ohio’s Steelworkers Union, Scarred By Past Trade Deals, Have Voiced Opposition To The TPP. “Hundreds of union workers gathered at a UAW hall Saturday. They’re opposing a potential international trade agreement. And two lawmakers are on their side. For Darryl Parker, international trade is personal. He represents steelworkers from the RG Steel plant. He said 1,100 workers lost their jobs because of free trade agreements. ‘And it’s not just the impact of the American worker. It’s also the community in which they live, because it’s also the mom-and-pop shops where we spend our money. It’s also the banks that we go and try to borrow money,’ said Parker, United Steel Workers Local 1375. Parker spoke Saturday at UAW Local 1112. He is against the Trans-Pacific Partnership. It’s a proposed trade agreement between the United States and 11 other countries.” (James Santelli, “Trans-Pacific Partnership: Union Members Gather To Voice Opposition,” WKBN, 4/1/15)

Organized Labor In Ohio Has Hosted Town Halls Against TPP, Fearing That It “Will Cost American Jobs In Much The Same Way NAFTA Did.” “It’s called the Trans-Pacific Partnership – or TPP – and its putting President Obama and organized labor on opposite sides of the argument over it. Local union leaders met Thursday night to hold a town hall about the trade agreement between the U.S. and 11 other countries that they say will cost American jobs in much the same way NAFTA did.” (John Kosich, “Local Union Leaders Gather To Discuss The Impact On Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Agreement,” ABC 5 , 4/23/15)

United Steelworkers, The AFL-CIO, And Other Ohio Unions Are Concerned That TPP “Could Negatively Affect The Country’s Export-Import Balance And Ultimately Hurt Manufacturers.” “Ohio chapters of unions such as the United Steelworkers and the AFL-CIO are afraid that upcoming federal trade deals could negatively affect the country’s export-import balance and ultimately hurt manufacturers who make those goods being sold. The trade-related proposals in question at the moment are the Trade Promotion Authority – or ‘fast track’ authority, as it’s been called – and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, an agreement being negotiated with 11 other countries.” (Rachel Abbey McCafferty, “Ohio Unions Are Voicing Concern Over Trade Proposals,” Crain’s Cleveland Business , 5/20/15)

“The Ohio Democratic Party Central Committee Officially Opposed The Fast Track Of The Trans Pacific Partnership On Saturday, April 11 With A Unanimous Vote.” “The Ohio Democratic Party Central Committee officially opposed the Fast Track of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) on Saturday, April 11 with a unanimous vote.” (Jason Perlman, “Ohio Democratic Party Officially Opposed #FastTrack Of #TPP,” Ohio AFL-CIO, 4/13/15)

  • Ohio AFL-CIO President Tim Burga “Introduced The Resolution Because Ohio Has Been Decimated By Bad Trade Policy” And Requires A Level Playing Field. “Ohio AFL-CIO Tim Burga introduced the resolution because Ohio has been decimated by bad trade policy that has sent hundreds of thousand of manufacturing jobs overseas in the last several decades. ‘The results are catastrophic – over the last decade 60,000 factories have closed in the United States and in Ohio we witnessed the loss of 320,000 manufacturing jobs. In addition to this severe job loss in the private sector, unfair trade leads to shrinking public budgets that restrict the delivery of needed services and public works projects,’ Burga says. ‘If given a level playing field the American worker can compete with anyone anywhere. A level playing field means not having to compete with poverty wages in China, Vietnam and other countries if the proposed ‘Fast Track’ of the Trans Pacific Partnership isn’t stopped. Not addressing the exploitation of workers in nations that the United States has trading relations with has created massive downward pressure on wages here and abroad.'” (Jason Perlman, “Ohio Democratic Party Officially Opposed #FastTrack Of #TPP,” Ohio AFL-CIO, 4/13/15)

FAILURE TO ADDRESS THE MASSIVE U.S. TRADE DEFICIT WITH CHINA COST OHIO 106,000 JOBS THROUGH 2013

The Clintons Established Trade Relations With China

In October 2000, Bill Clinton Signed Into Law A Bill That Changed China’s Normal Trade Relation Status With The U.S. To Permanent. (H.R. 4444, Signed Into Law, 10/10/00)

Hillary Clinton Supported Normalizing Trade Relations With China In 2000. CLINTON: “I will work to promote economic development and democracy in Africa and Asia, Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. And I will certainly work to ensure that Russia continues to draw down its nuclear arsenal, and that Russia (inaudible) to advance, democracy and religious freedom and freedom of the press. Had I been in the Senate this year, I would have voted for normalizing trade relations with China: I will continue to fight on behalf of basic human rights there and around the world.” (Hillary Rodham Clinton, Remarks To The Council On Foreign Relations , New York, NY, 10/17/00)

ustradedeficit_small Ohio Suffers Under Hillary Clinton Trade Policies As She Rakes In Special Interest Cash

The U.S. Trade Deficit With China Has Cost Ohio 106,400 Jobs, Or 2.04 Percent Of Its Entire Workforce, Through 2013

The EPI Estimates That U.S. Trade Deficit With China Has Displaced 106,400 Jobs Through 2013 In Ohio. (Will Kimball And Robert E. Scott, “China Trade, Outsourcing And Jobs,” Economic Policy Institute, 12/11/14)

The EPI Estimates That U.S. Trade Deficit With China Has Displaced 2.04 Percent Of Jobs Through 2013 In Ohio. (Will Kimball And Robert E. Scott, “China Trade, Outsourcing And Jobs,” Economic Policy Institute, 12/11/14)

NAFTA HAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE LOSS OF OHIO JOBS

Since Bill Clinton’s NAFTA Was Enacted, Ohio Has Lost 302,800 Manufacturing Jobs

Since Bill Clinton Signed NAFTA Into Law, Ohio Has Lost 302,800 Manufacturing Jobs. (Bureau Of Labor Statistics, Accessed 5/13/16)

NAFTA Has Left Ohioans With A Negative Impression Of Trade

Ohio AFL-CIO President Tim Burga Said That “The Union Isn’t Against Trade In General – Instead, It’s For Fair Trade” Which He Asserts Is Not Being Achieved Through Existing Agreements Such As NAFTA. “Tim Burga, Ohio AFL-CIO president, told the crowd that the union isn’t against trade in general – instead, it’s for fair trade. And it’s clear the union doesn’t think that will be achieved through these measures as they exist now.” (Rachel Abbey McCafferty, “Ohio Unions Are Voicing Concern Over Trade Proposals,” Crain’s Cleveland Business , 5/20/15)

Gary Kundrat From The Communications Workers Of America Said That Jobs That Left Ohio After NAFTA “Were Good Union Paying Jobs That Unfortunately Were Closed Down And Moved Outside This Country.” “‘You know those were good union paying jobs that unfortunately were closed down and moved outside this country,’ said Gary Kundrat from the Communications Workers of America.” (John Kosich, “Local Union Leaders Gather To Discuss The Impact On Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Agreement,” ABC 5 , 4/23/15)

Job Losses Caused By NAFTA In Ohio Are Still A “Political Flash Point”

The Toledo Blade Headline: “Decades On, NAFTA Still Political Flash Point.” (Tyrel Linkhorn, “Decades On, NAFTA Still Political Flash Point,”The Toledo Blade, 3/13/16)

At Least 4,350 Jobs In The Toledo, Ohio Region Have Been Moved To Mexico Since 2001. “State data show Ohio has lost one third of its manufacturing jobs since 2000, and Michigan has lost 31 percent. At least 4,350 jobs in northwest Ohio and southeast Michigan were shipped to Mexico since 2001, records show, including more than 1,000 jobs from an LG Philips Displays television tube plant in Putnam County that moved nearly all of its work to Mexico more than a decade ago.” (Tyrel Linkhorn, “Decades On, NAFTA Still Political Flash Point,” The Toledo Blade, 3/13/16)

At Least 900 Jobs In The Toledo, Ohio Region Have Been Moved To Canada Since 2001. “Similarly, at least 900 positions were eliminated over that period by companies deciding to move operations to Canada. Jobs also were lost to Poland, France, Costa Rica, Barbados, and China.” (Tyrel Linkhorn, “Decades On, NAFTA Still Political Flash Point,”The Toledo Blade, 3/13/16)

A Dixon Ticonderoga Plant Relocated From Ohio To Mexico, And Had Its Ohio Workers Train Their Foreign Replacements. “One example was the closure of a Dixon Ticonderoga plant in Sandusky that made chalks, paints, and crayons. Not only did the company move the plant’s work to Mexico, officials had the soon-to-be displaced workers training their foreign replacements. When the plant closed in 2002, there were about 115 employees there, though employment had previously been as high as 200.” (Tyrel Linkhorn, “Decades On, NAFTA Still Political Flash Point,” The Toledo Blade, 3/13/16)

OFFSHORING AND FOREIGN COMPETITION HAS COST OHIO JOBS

Eaton Corp. Announced That It Will Close Its Aurora Location And Move Production To Mexico In 2016, Resulting In A Loss Of 152 Ohio Jobs

The Eaton Corp. Will Begin To Lay Off More Than 100 Workers Starting April 9, And Will Fully Relocate Operations To Mexico In December. “The Eaton Corp. has decided to shut down its Berea factory that manufacturers quick-connect couplings for hydraulic lines. More than 100 will lose their jobs. In a Feb. 9 letter filed with the city and the state, Eaton said the first layoffs will begin April 9 and the plant will be closed by December. Eaton plans to buy the couplings from another manufacturer and ship them to a plant it owns in Mexico where workers will assemble them.” (John Funk, “Eaton To Close Berea Plant, Lay Off 102, Outsource Jobs,” The Plain Dealer, 2/17/16)

Appleton Papers, Inc Closed Its West Carrollton Location And Moved Production To Canada In 2012, Resulting In A Loss Of 330 Ohio Jobs

Appleton Made A Deal With A Montreal-Based Company To Make Its Product In Canada, Negating The Need For Its West Carrollton Plant. “Appleton plans to let go of 330 workers and cease making paper at the West Alex Bell Road plant following a 15-year deal with Domtar Corp., based in Montreal. Domtar will supply Wisconsin-based Appleton with most of the uncoated base paper it needs to make thermal, carbonless and other specialty paper products, negating the need to make the base paper at the West Carrollton plant.” (Thomas Gnau, “Paper Manufacturer To Let Go Of 330 Workers,” Dayton Daily News, 2/23/12)

Modine Manufacturing Company Closed Its Pemberville Location And Moved Production To Mexico In 2009, Resulting In A Loss Of 230 Ohio Jobs

Modine Announced That It Would Close Several U.S. Locations And Build A New Production Plant In Mexico. “Modine announced in April that over the next 18-24 months, it is closing plants in Camdenton, Mo.; Pemberton, Ohio; Logansport, Ind.; and Tubingen, Germany, and consolidating U.S. production at its facility in McHenry, Ill., and building a new plant next to the current one in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, all as part of a restructuring effort.” (Ed Marcum, “104 Losing Jobs At Auto Industry Suppliers,” Knoxville News Sentinel, 8/20/08)

MeanWestvaco Corp. Closed Its Washington Court House Location And Moved Production To Mexico In 2009, Resulting In A Loss Of 316 Ohio Jobs

MeadWestvaco Corp. Consolidated Production And Equipment From Washington Court House, Ohio To San Luis Potosi, Mexico. “MeadWestvaco Corp. will discontinue its MWV Calmar pump and dispensing manufacturing and distribution operations in Washington Court House, OH. The Washington Court House facility manufactures dispensers for the personal care and beauty industry. The company is consolidating production and equipment from Washington Court House to its San Luis Potosi, Mexico, plant. The transition is expected to be completed by the end of 2009. A small component manufacturing presence will be maintained at Washington Court House. The closure will impact approximately 278 hourly and salaried employees.” (Mark Heschmeyer, “Closures & Layoffs (Feb. 1-7): 2008’s Brutal Layoff Count,” CoStar, 2/4/09)

Amweld Building Products Closed Its Niles And Garrettsville Locations And Moved Production To Mexico In 2008, Resulting In A Loss Of 240 Ohio Jobs

In April 2007, Amweld Building Products Closed Its Niles And Garrettsville Locations And Shifted Work To Mexico. “Amweld Building Products says it will close its Niles and Garrettsville operations and shift work to Mexico, wiping out 125-plus jobs in Niles and 130 to 140 in Garrettsville.” (Larry Ringler, “Aluminum Plant To Idle,” Trib Today, 4/9/08)

Rubbermaid Closed Its Wooster Location After Moving Production To Mexico In 2004, Resulting In A Loss Of 475 Ohio Jobs

Rubbermaid Moved Its Manufacturing Line To Mexico In 2003, And In 2004 Announced It Was Pulling Operations Out Of Wooster, Ohio. “Some of Rubbermaid’s manufacturing line was moved to Mexico, and in November 2003 Newell Rubbermaid Incorporated announced that it was pulling its operations out of Wooster, ending Rubbermaid’s long relationship with that community.” (“Rubbermaid,” Ohio History Central, Accessed 6/7/16)

Hoover Company Closed Its North Canton Location And Moved Production To Mexico And Asia Due To Low-Priced Competitors Coming Out Of China In 2004, Resulting In A Loss Of 500 Ohio Jobs

Hoover Vacuum Cleaners Were Being Priced Out Of The Market By Chinese-Made Models. “Maytag has been getting killed by competitors who make their vacuum cleaners in China and have been able to underprice Hoover models by incredible margins. You can get a Chinese-made upright vacuum cleaner for well under $100 at Wal-Mart (WMT ), Target (TGT ), or Sears (SHLD ). Hoovers generally started at upward of $200. Not surprisingly, Hoover has lost market share, though it still was No. 1 in upright cleaners in 2004.” (Michael Arndt, “Online Extra: Sucking The Life Out Of Hoover,” Bloomberg, 8/22/05)

  • Maytag, Which Owned Hoover, Laid Off Its Workforce In North Canton And Shifted Production To Mexico And Asia, Including China. “Maytag’s response was to get concessions from the plant’s union, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, and to trim its workforce in North Canton, where Hoover began in 1908. Then it started shifting production itself, outsourcing the work to its own maquiladora in Mexico, as well as outside shops in Asia, including China.” (Michael Arndt, “Online Extra: Sucking The Life Out Of Hoover,” Bloomberg, 8/22/05)
  • Hoover Company Laid Off 200 Employees In North Canton, Ohio In 2004. (“2004 WARN List Notices,” Ohio Department Of Job And Family Services, Accessed 6/7/16)
  • Hoover Company Laid Off 292 Employees In North Canton, Ohio In 2005. (“2005 WARN List Notices,” Ohio Department Of Job And Family Services, Accessed 6/7/16)

World Kitchen Closed Its Massillon Location And Announced It Would Import Bake Ware From China In 2004, Resulting In A Loss Of 227 Ohio Jobs

World Kitchen Closed Its Bake Ware Factory In Massillon And Began Importing Bake Ware From China In 2004. “In late July, Mr. Bush campaigned in Canton, the county seat, just three days after World Kitchen in nearby Massillon announced that it was closing its 200-employee bake ware factory in favor of importing bake ware from China.” (Steven Greenhouse, “It’s Not Just About Jobs, But Where The Jobs Are,” The New York Times, 9/5/04)

American Standard Closed Its Tiffin Location And Moved Production To Mexico And Asia In 2004, Resulting In A Loss Of 212 Ohio Jobs

American Standard Ended Production Of Many Products In The U.S. And Shifted The Work To Mexico And Asia In 2004. “For nearly 60 years, it has been a U.S. business icon making products associated with function and comfort. But when layoffs and production changes are completed at a factory here, American Standard Cos. Inc. will be a little less American. The firm’s only remaining U.S. plant making ceramic bathroom and kitchen fixtures is ending production of most of its current products and shifting the work to factories in Mexico and Asia.” (Gary T. Pakulski, “The Fading Of A Fixture,” The Toledo Blade, 6/6/04)

Invensys Climate Controls Closed Its Plain City Location And Switched Supply To Come From A Plant In China In 2004, Resulting In A Loss Of 226 Ohio Jobs

Invensys Climate Controls Closed Manufacturing Operations In Ohio In 2004 Citing An Inability To Match The Prices Of Competitors In China. “Invensys Climate Controls will close manufacturing operations at its Plain City plant by the fall, putting 220 people – including many older and longtime employees – out of work. The company said 125 salaried workers will remain at the 51-year old operation, which previously was owned by Siebe PLC and Ranco Inc. Invensys, which took over the plant in 1999, said it can no longer match the prices of competitors in China for the valves it makes for commercial and residential heat pumps. ‘We hung in there as long as we could, but if we did not make this decision, we would not be able to compete and would lose major business,’ said Gale Maxwell, director of manufacturing.” (Mark Niquette, “Plain City Plant To Lay Off 220 Workers,” The Columbus Dispatch, 4/30/04)

  • Invensys Switched Its Supplier From The Closed Ohio Plant To A Plant In China. “Many customers said they would buy from Asian competitors unless Invensys could match their lower prices, the company said. Those customers will now be supplied by the Invensys plant in China.” (Mark Niquette, “Plain City Plant To Lay Off 220 Workers,” The Columbus Dispatch, 4/30/04)
  • Invensys Climate Controls Laid Off 226 Employees In Plain City, Ohio In 2004. (“2004 WARN List Notices,” Ohio Department Of Job And Family Services, Accessed 6/7/16)

LG Philips Closed Its Ottawa Location And Relocated Production To Mexico In 2002, Resulting In A Loss Of Over 1,200 Ohio Jobs

LG Philips Shut Down Its Ottawa Production Facility In December 2002 And Moved Production To Mexico, Laying Off Over 1,200 Ohioans In The Process. “One of the hardest hit areas in Ohio is the village of Ottawa, in Putnam County west of Toledo. In December 2002, LG Philips shut its Ottawa TV picture tube factory and moved production to Mexico. Over 1,200 workers were laid off. A recent article in the Toledo Blade reports nearly a third of these workers remained unemployed a year later, including some who found jobs after the Philips layoff but were then laid off by their new employer. Others that found jobs usually had to accept work that was lower paid, and with fewer benefits.” (Jon Honeck, “International Trade And Job Loss In Ohio,” Policy Matters Ohio, February 2004)

The Ohio Art Company Closed Its Bryan Location And Relocated Production To China In 2000, Resulting In A Loss Of Ohio Jobs

The Ohio Art Company Shut Down Its ‘Etch A Sketch’ Production Factory In Bryan, Ohio And Moved Production To China In 2000. “Farther to the northwest, in the town of Bryan (Williams County), workers who made the famous ‘Etch A Sketch’ toy were laid off in December, 2000, when the Ohio Art Company shut its factory and moved all production to China. According to an article in the New York Times, ‘Three years later, only a few Etch A Sketch assembly line workers have found other jobs. Most of those who did were lifetime employees who were rehired in other departments, including a few who unpack crates full of Etch A Sketches from China.'” (Jon Honeck, “International Trade And Job Loss In Ohio,” Policy Matters Ohio, February 2004)

Lear Corporation Closed Its Zanesville Location And Relocated Production To Mexico In 2000, Resulting In A Loss Of 360 Ohio Jobs

Lear Corporation Closed Its Zanesville Location When A Multimillion-Dollar Contract With A U.S. Automaker Was Not Renewed. “A major parts supplier to Big Three automakers is shuttering a plant in Zanesville that has operated for nearly 60 years, throwing 383 employees out of work. The Lear Corp. plant on Ceramic Avenue will close by the end of October, the chief spokeswoman for the Southfield, Mich.-based parts producer said. The 220,000-square-foot factory, which makes wiring harnesses for gasoline- and electric-powered cars and trucks, will close because company executives were alerted in April that a multimillion-dollar contract with a U.S. automaker isn’t being renewed, spokeswoman Andrea Puchalsky said.” (Dan Crawford, “Lear Closing 383-Worker Zanesville Plant,” Columbus Business First, 7/17/00)

  • The Wiring Harness Work That Was Handled At The Zanesville Plant Was Transferred To Mexico. “The wiring harness work for electric-powered vehicles handled at the Zanesville plant will be transferred to a Lear plant in Mexico, but it’s not a significant portion of the Mexican plant’s operations, Puchalsky said.” (Dan Crawford, “Lear Closing 383-Worker Zanesville Plant,” Columbus Business First, 7/17/00)
  • Lear Corporation Laid Off 360 Employees In Zanesville, Ohio In 2000. (“2000 WARN List Notices,” Ohio Department Of Job And Family Services, Accessed 6/7/16)

Eveready Battery Co. Closed Its Fremont Location And Relocated Production To Mexico In 1998, Resulting In A Loss Of 250 Ohio Jobs

Eveready Battery Co. Closed Down Carbon Zinc Battery Plants In Mexico To Move The Work To “Lower Cost Plants.” “Ralston Purina Co.’s Eveready Battery Co. is continuing its strategy of closing down carbon zinc battery plants and moving the work to lower cost plants. At the same time, Eveready is investing in plants with technology that produces longer-life batteries. On Tuesday the company notified employees at its Fremont, Ohio, plant that it would close the operation next year.” (Rick Desloge, “Eveready Closing Ohio Plant, Will Move Work To Mexico,” St. Louis Business Journal, 6/8/97)

  • A Spokesman For Eveready Confirmed That “Many Of The Products Will Move To Tecamec, Mexico.” “‘Many of the products will move to Tecamec, Mexico,’ said Keith Schopp, a spokesman for Eveready. ‘The carbon zinc operations are being consolidated at that plant.'” (Rick Desloge, “Eveready Closing Ohio Plant, Will Move Work To Mexico,” St. Louis Business Journal, 6/8/97)
  • Eveready Battery Laid Off 250 Employees In Fremont, Ohio In 1998. (“1997 WARN List Notices,” Ohio Department Of Job And Family Services, Accessed 6/6/16)

Consolidated Freightways Closed Its Richfield Location And Relocated Production To Mexico In 1996, Resulting In A Loss Of 287 Ohio Jobs

Consolidated Freightways Was The First U.S. Trucking Company “To Own And Operate A Subsidiary In Mexico Under The Investment Provisions Of The North American Free Trade Agreement.” “Consolidated Freightways has become the first U.S. trucking company to own and operate a subsidiary in Mexico under the investment provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The service is important because of its potential to introduce large-scale less-than-containerload trucking service between the United States and Mexico – a sector that has lagged in recent years as trade between the two countries has expanded. If the venture proves viable, it could provide a stimulus for land investment, new hubs, terminals and distribution sites throughout Mexican industrial centers.” (Kevin G. Hall, “Trucking Company Puts NAFTA Theory Into Trade Practice,” Journal Of Commerce, 10/15/98)